|Over the past 100 years glaciers and ice fields of the European Alps have lost half their volume to global warming, and their continued retreat, like that of glaciers everywhere, is accelerating. By 2100 many scientists predict they will have all but disappeared. As glaciers recede, they are releasing human artifacts that they have absorbed through the ages, including humans themselves. Ötzi the iceman, the five-thousand-year-old mummified mountaineer discovered in 1991, being the most amazing.|
Sunday, 20 August 2017
Friday, 18 August 2017
3D animation of the Alesi skull computed from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microtomographic data. It shows the skull in solid 3D rendering
|X-rays fired at the skull turned up such high-res images of its teeth that the infant's age could be determined to within a matter of months. But the scientists were most excited about its ears. The inner ear structure suggests that it would not have had the balance to perform treetop aerial antics.|
Thursday, 17 August 2017
Wednesday, 16 August 2017
Tuesday, 15 August 2017
|Ancient artifacts have been recovered from a Roman merchant ship that sank off the port of Caesarea 1,600 years ago.|
|The range of finds recovered from the sea reflects the large volume of trade and the status of Caesarea’s harbour during the late Roman period, which was known as a period of economic and commercial stability.|
|The largest cache of gold coins ever found in Israel was discovered by chance by divers at Caesarea in early 2015. The treasure included at least 2,000 gold coins from the Fatimid period, approximately 1,000 years ago.|
|Most of the coins belong to the Caliph Al-Hakim, who ruled from 996 to 1021, and to his son, Al-Zahir (1021–1036), and were minted in Egypt and North Africa. The earliest coin in the cache is a quarter-dinar minted in Palermo, Sicily in the second half of the 9th century. |
The latest coin dates to 1036, so it can be concluded that the ship sank around that year, although until excavations are carried out around the spot where the cache was found, the date is difficult to determine.
|Caesarea was a harbor city founded by King Herod the Great about 2,000 years ago.|
At the time the coins were minted, the city was a bustling, prosperous port that played an important role in the Fatimid's trading network.
Monday, 14 August 2017
Flattened copper helmet and skull found in the Royal Tomb at Ur
|The most vulnerable part of the soldier in battle was his head, so the search for protection by some form of helmet goes back to the earliest times.|
Helmets were purpose-built to protect the wearer against the specific weapons he faced. At first, ancient helmets seem to have been pointed at the top, to deflect the downward force. When the ax became popular as a weapon, the shape of the helmet was modified to counter the cutting edge of a downward-falling blade.
The Crosby Garrett Helmet is a copper alloy Roman cavalry helmet dating from the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD. It was found near Crosby Garrett in Cumbria, England
Bronze Helmet from Ancient Greece, around 460 BC
Roman horseman's helmet, found in the Peel district, The Netherlands
| This 2,600-year-old bronze helmet was discovered in the waters of Haifa Bay, Israel in 2012. When it was made Greek colonies dotted the Mediterranean coast, stretching from the Black Sea to southern France. |
This warrior was likely one of Egyptian pharaoh Necho II's troops, which he sent through Israel accompanied by a fleet of ancient ships. The pharaoh was involved in military campaigns in the region for nearly a decade, operations in which this warrior and his group likely were involved.
|Ancient Greek helmets from the Archaic period (800 BC – 480 BCE). A Corinthian-type, found in Leivadia. The second is a Illyrian-type helmet from Leivadia. The third is from Agia Paraskevi near Kozani. All are made of bronze.|
The Helmet of Agighiol is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 5th century BC.
Sutton Hoo helmet reconstructed
The Golden Helmet of Coţofeneşti
Gladiator helmet from Pompei
Greek Spartan Crest Helmet
Spanish morion (helmet)
Helmet covered in heavy gold florets with spike top, visor front. Chou Dynasty, Emperor Wu Wang tomb complex at Laoyang, circa 1020 BC.
Helmet of a Yuan Dynasty officer
Japanese helmet, circa 1590–1640.
Chinese chichak-style helmet, Ming Dynasty
Helmet from 7th century Viking boat grave
|A common myth about the Vikings was that they wore horned helmets in battle. Archaeologists have found no proof to say that their helmets had horns. The reason their helmets didn't have horns was because they would have gotten in the way in battles and may have ended up injuring the wearer.|
Real Viking helmets had protective metal down and around the ears and some helmets found in burial mounts had a metal mask in front.
German helmet by famous armorsmith Jörg Seusenhofer ca. 1540